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What is Obesity?

Obesity is a common, treatable disease associated with excess body fat. Obesity is caused by environmental or genetic factors and can be very difficult to control with diet alone. Obesity is diagnosed by a physician and classified as having a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher.
Since body fat is extremely difficult to measure directly, it is generally measured by body mass index (BMI). BMI which measures weight with height is a common way of measuring body fat and is a tool used by physicians.

Causes of Obesity

Having a good understanding of the causes of obesity can help to treat obesity effectively. Obesity is a complicated disease, not just a food-related condition, and has multiple causes. Causes of obesity in general include:
  • Stress and anxiety can trigger obesity. To be successful in weight management, it may be necessary to work on psychological factors.
  • Excess calories consumed than calories burned can cause weight gain.
  • Long daily trips and desk jobs speed up weight gain by limiting physical activity.
  • People who don’t get enough sleep, in general, may be prone to weight gain.
  • The body has hormones (chemicals that control the function and activity of tissues and organs in the body) that help to know the state of hunger or satiety. These hormones, which signal hunger and satiety, do not always work correctly in people with obesity.
  • A genetic predisposition increases the likelihood of obesity.
  • Some drugs used can cause weight gain.
  • Consistent consumption of foods and beverages high in calories and fat is associated with being overweight.

What Are the Health Risks Associated with Obesity?

Excess weight can be quite difficult for the body. There are more than 100 diseases or problems associated with being overweight and obese. These health problems are diseases that can reduce the quality of life and are commonly referred to as obesity-related conditions. Diseases caused by obesity generally include:

Type 2 diabetes is a disease that occurs when blood sugar is too high. About 9 out of 10 people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese. Over time, high blood sugar can lead to problems such as heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, eye problems, nerve damage, and other health problems.
Hipertansiyon olarak da adlandırılan yüksek tansiyon, kanın, damarlardan normalden daha güçlü bir kuvvetle aktığı bir durumdur. High blood pressure can seriously strain the heart, damage blood vessels, and increase the risk of stroke, heart attack, kidney problems, and death.
Heart disease is a term used to describe various problems that can affect the heart. High blood pressure, abnormal cholesterol levels, and high blood sugar levels can increase the risk of heart disease.
It is the sudden cessation of blood supply to the brain due to a blockage or bursting of a blood vessel in the brain or neck. A stroke, which is especially caused by high blood pressure, can damage brain tissue and render parts of the body unable to move.
Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes a person to have trouble breathing while sleeping. Untreated sleep apnea can increase the risk of other health problems such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease.
A metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that increase the risk of heart disease, diabetes, and stroke.
Fatty liver, the most important cause of which is obesity, can lead to serious liver damage, cirrhosis, and even liver failure.
Calcification, also known as osteoarthritis, is a common, long-term health condition that causes pain, swelling, and decreased range of motion in the joints. Being overweight or obese can put extra pressure on the joints and cartilage, increasing the risk of osteoarthritis.
Obesity can increase the risk of developing gallbladder diseases such as gallstones and cholecystitis. Imbalances in the substances that make up bile cause gallstones. Gallstones can form if the bile contains too much cholesterol.
In all types of cancer, some cells in the body begin to divide continuously and spread to the surrounding tissues. Excess weight and obesity can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer.

Kidney disease means that the kidneys are heavily damaged and unable to filter the blood properly. Obesity increases the risk of diabetes and high blood pressure, which are the most common causes of kidney disease.

Obesity greatly increases the risk of health problems that may occur during pregnancy.

Treatment of Obesity

Obesity treatment plans are made for each individual by the physician. Early treatment is vital. There are many obesity treatment options and combinations are often preferred to manage obesity. The methods used for obesity treatment are:

Changes in Physical Activity

Physical activity is very important in the treatment of obesity. It’s best to start activities simple and keep them manageable. After dinner, walks can be made. It is very important to make physical activity a part of the day. When making an exercise and physical activity plan, keep in mind the following:
  • Simplify
  • Make it realistic
  • Actualize it
  • Make it fun

Changes in Eating Habits

Changing eating habits can be challenging. It is very important to evaluate food and beverage options well. Healthy eating is a journey shaped by many factors such as age, weight, metabolism, food preferences, access to food, culture, and traditions. A specialist should be consulted before making dietary changes.

Bariatric Surgery

Obesity surgery is also known as metabolic and bariatric surgery. These terms are preferred to emphasize the impact of bariatric surgery on patients’ weight and metabolic health. In addition to being able to treat obesity, these effective surgical procedures are also extremely effective for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, sleep apnea, and high cholesterol. These surgical applications also can prevent health problems that may arise in the future.

This procedure allows obese patients to live a much better quality of life. Today’s bariatric and metabolic surgeries, which are performed with very small incisions by preferring minimally invasive methods (such as robotic surgery and laparoscopic), have been significantly improved over many years and are among the most effective treatment methods in today’s medicine. These important developments enable patients to have a comfortable treatment process with much less pain, fewer side effects, a faster recovery period, and a very short hospitalization period.

These surgical procedures are extremely safe, with much fewer side effects than common surgeries such as hysterectomy, leg replacement, brain surgery, and heart valve surgery. The main purpose of these surgical applications is to seriously modify the intestine and stomach to quickly treat obesity and related problems. Surgical procedures greatly shrink the stomach and may also bypass part of the intestines. This leads to less food consumption and completely changes the way the body absorbs food for energy. This causes hunger to be minimized and satiety to increase at high levels. These practices also improve the body’s function to reach its ideal weight effectively. This procedure is also extremely effective for the remission of obesity-related conditions.